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Genitourinary Cancers

SAN FRANCISCO—Two new studies presented at the 2010 annual meeting of the American Urological Association (AUA) suggest that large-scale prostate cancer screenings can indeed save lives.

Researchers in Innsbruck, Austria, evaluated data from the state of Tyrol within Austria, where an early detection and treatment program has been in place for more than 20 years. They found that these programs have been associated with a reduction in mortality in areas where effective treatment is available to all men.

CHICAGO—Cabazitaxel is the first treatment to show a survival benefit in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC), according to data from a phase 3 trial.

On June 17, cabazitaxel became the first drug approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of hormone-refractory prostate cancer. Results from the phase 3 trial delivered at ASCO were included in the FDA review.

Approximately 192,000 men developed prostate cancer in 2009 and 27,000 died from the disease.1 Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in North America and the second most common cause of cancer death in men. Although the number of new cases of prostate cancer has increased in the past decade, the absolute number of deaths has slowly declined.1 As the incidence of prostate cancer increases, controversies continue about the best possible methods for screening, detection, and treatment.

The past 5 years have ushered in a new era in the treatment of kidney cancer, and new medications are giving patients more options than ever before. In addition, the traditional end points in oncology drug development, such as survival and tumor response, are changing when it comes to this tumor type. The goal of therapy now is to improve symptomatic and functional ability in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC).

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