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Genitourinary Cancers

Although recent studies have shown the efficacy of using ster­eotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) as a treatment modality for organ-confined prostate cancer, questions over urinary symptoms and sexual dysfunction have remained. According to findings presented at the 2015 Genitourinary Cancers Symposium, those questions have been answered: the SBRT approach demonstrates acceptable urinary and sexual toxicity.
Use of adjuvant sorafenib and sunitinib failed to extend disease-free survival (DFS) in patients with locally advanced kidney cancer at high risk of recurrence, according to initial results from the ASSURE study presented at the 2015 Genitourinary Cancers Symposium. ASSURE is the first and largest study of adjuvant vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors in kidney cancer.
Experts are hopeful that the field of prostate cancer will soon be catching up to breast cancer and some other tumor types with regard to genomic markers. A study featured at the 2015 Genitourinary Cancers Symposium suggests that the androgen receptor (AR) abnormality known as AR-V7 will turn out to be a predictive marker to help in treatment selection for patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC).
Many molecularly targeted agents that inhibit different pathways of hepatocarcinogenesis are under clinical development, and novel targets are being assessed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
The rate of therapy for localized prostate cancer does not increase in markets with higher penetration of robotic surgical technology and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), according to an examination of trends using the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER)-Medicare linked database.
Abiraterone plus prednisone reduces the risk of disease progression and delays the time to opiate use and chemotherapy versus prednisone alone in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) who had not received chemotherapy for metastatic disease.
Promising results were obtained with enzalutamide monotherapy in patients with hormone-naive prostate cancer.
Prostate cancer screening with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests should focus on men aged 55 to 69 years, the group that is the most likely to benefit from screening.
The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved axitinib (Inlyta; Pfizer, Inc.) for the treatment of patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma after failure of 1 prior systemic therapy. This approval was granted on January 27, 2012. For more information about the FDA approval, see http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/InformationOnDrugs/ApprovedDrugs/ucm289439.htm.
The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved enzalutamide (Xtandi; Medivation, Inc., Astellas Pharma US, Inc.) for the treatment of patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer who had previously received docetaxel.
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