Genitourinary Cancers

An investigational alpha-pharmaceutical not only prevented skeletal-related events (SREs) in patients with prostate cancer with bone metastases in a phase 3 study presented at the 2011 European Multidisciplinary Cancer Congress, but it also improved overall survival.

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Urothelial (transitional) bladder carcinoma, the most common type of bladder cancer, has mutations in genes that function in chromatin remodeling, affecting the way DNA is packaged, duplicated, and processed during cell division. Gui et al from China examined this issue in a study just published online in Nature Genetics. Common chromatin remodeling genes include UTX, MLL-MLL3, CREBBP-EP300, NCOR1, ARID1A, and CHD6. Read More ›


A recently developed urine test can assist in the early detection of and treatment decisions regarding prostate cancer, a study from the University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center and the Michigan Center for Translational Pathology finds.

 

The test is designed to supplement an elevated PSA screening result. While defining those men at highest risk for clinically significant prostate cancer, the test could also delay or negate the need for a needle biopsy in some patients.

 

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Based on results of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT) and the Reduction by Dutasteride of Prostate Cancer Events (REDUCE) trial, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has updated the Warnings and Precautions sections of the labels for the 5-alpha reductase inhibitor (5-ARI) drug class. These trials showed that daily use of finaseride and dutasteride reduced overall incidence of prostate cancer (mainly low-grade), but increased the incidence of high-grade prostate cancers.

 

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Clear cell (CC)-renal cell carcinoma (RCC), the predominant histologic type of RCC, is highly dependent on angiogenesis, via the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway.1 The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway also appears to play a role in VEGF production, as well as directly promote tumor cell growth.

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When initial androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) fails to control progression of metastatic prostate cancer, the disease is redefined as castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Studies have shown that using docetaxel and prednisone to treat men with CRPC only modestly extends median overall survival (OS) to ~19 months. Read More ›


The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved abiraterone acetate (Zytiga, Centocor Ortho Biotech) in combination with prednisone to treat patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer who have received prior docetaxel-based chemotherapy.

 

This oral oncolytic targets CYP 17A1, which plays an important role in the production of testosterone. The drug works by decreasing the production of this hormone that would stimulate cancer cells to continue growing.

 

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Interim results of a randomized, controlled, phase 3 trial showed that abiraterone acetate significantly prolonged overall survival (OS) in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) who progressed after docetaxel-based chemotherapy. The survival benefit was consistent across all prespecified subgroups. Lead author Howard Scher, MD, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, said abiraterone is poised to become a new standard of care.

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Adding androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) to dose-escalated external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for men with intermediate-risk prostate cancer improves biochemical failure-free survival but not overall survival (OS), according to a retrospective study. Researchers from Emory University School of Medicine and the Atlanta Veterans Administration in Georgia conducted the study. Read More ›


ORLANDO—Computed tomography (CT) scanning and blood tests to determine tumor markers are very important in the follow-up of stage I nonseminomatous testicular cancer (NSTC), but the physical examination is of limited value, according to new research presented in a poster session.

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